PUBH642 Global Nutrition And Food Security

Table of Contents


This assignment aims to create an intervention strategy to address the issue of dual burden households by preserving traditional food systems that are applicable to countries from the following regions: Africa or Asia, South America, the Pacific, and South America.

The essay should include a description and explanation of dual burden malnutrition and its determinants. It should also contain a summary of food production statistics as well as a summary of national dietary patterns in the country.

Next, the essay should describe an intervention strategy for increasing dual burden malnutrition.


The dual-burden of nutritional is basically described as a co-existence of undernourishment or stunting (malnutrition), or obesity due to excess nutrition (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

It is possible for coexistence to occur in the same people or the same sample of population.

belonging to a specific location, ethnicity or population (Varela­Silva et. al., 2012).

The coexistence can also occur within the same household, family or individual (Varela­Silva, et al. 2012).

This phenomenon has been called “dual-burden Malnutrition” and is most common in developing, underdeveloped, low- or middle-income countries or continents (Varela Silva et. al., 2012).

In recent years, research has focused on the dual-burden of nutritional malnutrition.

In developing and low-income households, the dual-burden of malnutrition has been seen (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

Malnutrition is most often associated with underdevelopment of height and inappropriate weight values (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

Infant obesity is often mistaken for optimal nutrition, which makes it more difficult to manage the nutritional dual burden concern (Varela Silva et. al. 2012).

Research has shown that underdevelopment of height and overweight is contrary to the biological nature human development (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

These events have not been predicted by conventional nutritional systems (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

Dual-burden nutrition is a recent pandemic that has been affecting people all over the globe (Popkin and al., 2012).

Popkin et. al. (2012). The obesity pandemic has rapidly evolved in recent years in both the developed world and the developing world.

The recent rise in obesity rates has been attributed to westernization of dietary and lifestyle habits (Popkin et. al., 2012).

Both the Western and the rest of the globe have a significantly lower level of physical activity.

“Nutrition transition” is a term that refers to the phenomenon of altered dietary patterns.

A shift in dietary patterns, as compared with the traditional food intake systems of the area, can lead to altered health patterns, which ultimately leads to obesity or dual-burden Malnutrition (Popkin and al., 2012).

Popkin et. al. (2012) found that obesity has been linked to the statistical ratios of sociodemographic data, in terms of race, ethnicity, age, and location, in both children and adults.

This pandemic is primarily due to an increase in processed foods, which have low nutritional index but high fat intake (Popkin and al., 2012).

Guyomard and colleagues (2012) stress the importance of food security around the world.

Food security can be defined as having access to food that is safe, nutritious, adequate, and available for all (Guyomard, et al. 2012).

Guyomard and colleagues (2012) emphasize that ensuring food security in a country will improve its economic and social standing.

Guyomard and colleagues (2012) found that food security in the world is poor.

Malnutrition and undernourishment are equally important, just like obesity.

Management of the dual-burden nutrition is based primarily on the presence of both undernourishment or obesity in particular households or populations.

The management of this problem becomes more difficult due to the complexity of these pandemics (De Onis and Blossner 2006).

In recent years, however, health systems have been focusing on both under- and overnutrition.

Doak et. al., 2005. Research has shown that dual-burden households are a serious social health problem and must be addressed.

Doak et. al., 2005 examined the relationship between dual-burden households and urban residence or income levels in households.

Scientists have concluded that undernourishment could be a side effect of overnutrition prevention programs in normal weight individuals (Doak and al. 2005).

There is a statistically significant association between obesity and stunting. This can be attributed to the following factors: age, physical inactivity, skipping breakfast, or the absence of any meal during the day.

The assessment of lifestyle and dietary habits is one of the most important strategies to intervene in dual-burden households.

These interventions are focused on improving dietary habits, including the intake of nutritious food, increased exercise, and reduced screen or sedentary time (El-Kassas & Ziade 2017, 2017).

Today’s world is facing challenges in terms of undernutrition, obesity and dual-burden Malnutrition.

Research has shown that malnutrition is a multi-layered, multi-sectoral public concern. It leads to complex interactions between households and the national agricultural and food production system, as well as decision-making concerns for the individual and household.

This article examines dual-burden malnutrition and provides an analysis of nutrition, food production and dietary patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa.

It also provides an intervention to address the dual-burden of Malnutrition in the Region by addressing concerns about the nutrition transition, and the preservation of traditional food systems.

National Dietary Patterns and Food Production Statistics for Sub-Saharan Africa

Malnutrition can be described as a variety of nutritional problems, including obesity, undernutrition, overnutrition, excess hunger, deficiency of micronutrients and excessive food intake (Fanzo 2012).

Malnutrition refers to individuals who are malnourished or have a lack of dietary nutrients.

Primary indicators of nutrition and health in children and women are the calories and protein required to maintain a normal health status (Fanzo 2012).

Hidden hunger and deficiency in essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals can lead to malnutrition in most people (Fanzo 2012).

Malnutrition is caused by undernourishment, which is the most common cause.

A global pandemic is rife with acute malnutrition, which is known as “wasting”. (Fanzo 2012).

A person of a certain height is considered to be “wasting” if they have a low body weight.

In most cases, the ratio of height and weight is severely disturbed (Fanzo 2012).

Oedema is a common side effect of wasting.

The ratios of children who are wasting have remained high in Africa and the rate of malnutrition has not shown significant improvement in recent years (Lartey 2008).

Although the global hunger index (GHI), has seen some improvement in Africa, it does not show a significant improvement for the entire Sub-Saharan African continent (Lartey 2008).

Statistically, there have been approximately 100 million cases of malnutrition or undernutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa.

In 1990-1992, 150 million people were affected.

1995-97: 200 million.

In 2000-02 and 2005-07 respectively.

It reached 250 million in 2009, but it has slightly declined to 210 million in 2010. (Lartey 2008).

34% is the average percentage of the sub-Saharan African population that is undernourished.

in 1990-92, 32% approximately.

1995-97; 32% approx.

in 2005-07, 26% approximately.

(2008). 31% in 2009, and 30% in 2010. (Lartey 2008).

The sub-Saharan African region’s current situation reflects the lack of effective food production and nutritional strategies.

Malnutrition pandemics have been a result of a lack of nutrition for children and maternal nutritional deficiencies.

To eradicate malnutrition and dual burden nutrition, the primary goal is to provide adequate micronutrients as well as to ensure that individuals have a minimum calorific intake, regardless of their age, height, ethnicity or region (Lartey 2008).

This population includes all women who have children (pregnant women, mothers of children, infants and children) (Lartey 2008).

These people are more vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies due to higher levels of physiological nutrients (Lartey 2008).

These individuals are more likely to not meet their nutritional needs (Lartey 2008).

The lack of adequate interventions in many countries to address dual-burden nutrition is often a problem for public health (Lartey 2008).

Additional nutritional risks are also present in pregnant and lactating women (Lartey 2008).

Infants are also at their peak for growth and development, so there is a high need for nutrition (Lartey 2008).

Studies in Sub-Saharan Africa have shown that children and women are more vulnerable to malnutrition due to climate and environmental factors.

These regions have many economic challenges that lead to nutritional deficiencies for both the children and women (Lartey 2008).

There are many studies in literature that show the link between economic and financial status of households (Gillespie & Bold 2017, 2017).

The interplay between urban lifestyle, social, and economic factors, as well as the presence of dual burden households, is an important indicator for the nation’s nutritional status (Lartey 2008).

Research shows that the Sub-Saharan African Region is most vulnerable to malnutrition. This is due to poverty, inadequate food systems and a lack of resources (Fanzo 2012).

Many diseases and epidemics are also possible due to the lack of infrastructure and limited resources.

These areas lack access to quality health care facilities (Fanzo 2012).

These are the most important interventions in these areas, but few are being implemented. This includes the promotion of nutrition and health by focusing on traditional food systems and regional practices (Fanzo 2012).

The main goal of the Sub-Saharan African intervention for malnutrition is to raise awareness about nutrition and human growth (Fanzo 2012).

Promoting nutrition’s physiological basis as a key factor in growth and development is important.

This intervention also focuses on the preservation and promotion of traditional food practices in Africa.

Further, the intervention aims to promote hygiene (Fanzo 2012).

The intervention’s primary goal is to focus on the country’s agricultural and food production systems (Fanzo 2012).

Dual-burden can be attributed to the nutritional transition in many countries (Fanzo 2012).

Due to the changing food demands, the Western diet has led to concerns about nutrition transition.

The main causes of malnutrition pandemics in the Sub-Saharan Region are poverty and a lack of micronutrients.

The intervention addresses the region’s nutrition transition and lack of traditional food systems.

Improvements in agricultural and food production patterns are key to increasing the supply of micronutrients for infants (Fanzo 2012).

According to the Lancet series 2008 on undernutrition (Fanzo 2012), stunting and malnutrition are strongly linked to a lack of hygiene, awareness, supply and use of micronutrients to feed mothers and children.

The success of interventions that aim to eradicate malnutrition in Sub-Saharan areas is greatly influenced by the food industry.

These regions must have evidence to support the core interventions.

Lancet studies made 2008 recommendations that emphasize a multi-sectoral approach and the inclusion of interventions that are sensitive for nutritional needs (Fanzo 2012).

The interventional approach includes the agricultural sector, the social and health sectors, as well as the industry of food production (Fanzo 2012).

These strategies must be included in the intervention:

Integration of farming techniques, systems that combine aquamarine culture, ornamental horticulture and the rearing of poultry or livestock – all of these are consumable nutritional systems.

These systems must combine techniques to reduce wastage and cut costs for inputs to the agriculture industry to increase the variety of products (Fanzo 2012).

Communication systems are used to spread awareness about nutrition and marketing strategies for food products.

These marketing interventions should focus on strengthening local food production systems and promoting the cultivation and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods (Fanzo 2012).

Improvement of techniques to manage products after harvest.

These strategies include the storage, food handling and transformation of food products, as well as production and processing.

These strategies help to reduce the loss of nutrients, the quality and content of products. They also protect the safety of products (Fanzo 2012).

Interventions to develop economic and business opportunities for women in order increase employment opportunities that aid in the elimination of poverty or lack thereof

Women’s financial and health conditions can be improved to benefit their children.

Access to various health services, including antenatal care, reduced workload for pregnant women, new mothers and nutritional services, is easy.

Facilities for improved maternal nutrition, education and immunizations, as well as financial and general health services.

Food and water safety, improved hygiene, and better health for the community

The interventions mentioned above are primarily designed to eliminate the causes of the dual-burden malnutrition epidemic.

Fanzo, J (2012).

The Nutrition Challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Retrieved from

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Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72: 1032-1039.

The dual-burden household and the nutrition transition paradox.


NOW AND THEN: The Global Nutrition Transition – The Pandemic Of Obesity In Developing Countries.

Double burden of malnutrition. A silent driver of double disease burden in low- and medium-income countries.

A Nutrition Paradox — Obesity and Underweight in Developing Countries.


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Traditional food processing and preparation techniques to increase the bioavailability micronutrients in plant-based diets.

Ethiopia Case Study: Empowering Communities through Food-Based Programs, Discussion Paper.

Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute

Prevalence and trends in stunting among preschool children, 1990 to 2020.

The case of France’s consumer-oriented movements: From consumerism to empowerment of consumers.

Estimating cardiovascular mortality due to the Common Agricultural Policy for dietary saturated fats.

But what about food prices? Corn prices are near record highs.

Can Cannes work to reduce hunger and food price volatility?

Body mass index, neighbourhood restaurant concentration and car ownership.

Can Cannes work to reduce hunger and food price volatility?

Agric Food Security, 1.

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