PHAR 6205 Pharmacology

Table of Contents


Write a report about Non-opioid Pharmacological Management of Dental Pain


Non-opioid pain relievers are medications that can be used to reduce inflammation and pain by limiting the release of inflammatory mediators.

The NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), selective COX-2 inhibitors, and also acetaminophen are all non-opioid pain reliefrs.

These non-opioid pain relievers have been used for the treatment of severe to moderate dental pain for many years.

Many formulations contain non-opioid pain relievers, such as NSAIDs and acetaminophen.

These products are used in dentistry extensively and show a greater efficacy in relieving pain that when each ingredient is used individually.

Non-opioid products have been widely used in relieving dental discomfort. Opioid analgesics can cause side effects that are not desirable. These include depression in the central nervous system and respiratory system. There is also the possibility of gastrointestinal upset. Therefore, combining analgesics with non-opioid components may be a viable alternative to opioids in managing dental pain.

The article will cover the non-opioid analgesics used in dental pain management. These include non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen.

Although these medications are easily accessible and can be obtained without a prescription, this does not necessarily mean they have a lower ability to relieve dental pain (Labianca Sarzi-Puttini. Zuccaro. Cherubino. Vellucci & Fornasari 2012).


Paracetamol is a common name for Acetaminophen.

Acetaminophen is a non-opioid drug that has analgesic and antipyretic properties similar to aspirin. However, it has weaker anti-inflammatory actions than NSAIDs or aspirin.

Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed that acetaminophen acts in the same way as NSAIDs and aspirin. It inhibits prostaglandin formation and synthesis.

It has been discovered that Acetaminophen may be more active in the CNS than other NSAIDs and that it may have multiple mechanisms that are still unknown.

Acetaminophen is the best drug to relieve dental pain. This is especially true for patients who have contraindications to NSAIDs or aspirin (Pogatzki Zahn Chandrasena & Schug 2014).

Acetaminophen does not have the true anti-inflammatory properties, but has been shown to be effective in treating dental pain caused by inflammation.

Acetaminophen can cause liver damage, which can be caused by either chronic or acute overdose.

This drug is effective as a monotherapy and can be used to relieve post-operative pain following dental surgery, especially molar extractions.

It is important to remember that acetaminophen is not an effective analgesic when taken in high doses. This is because it can only be used to treat moderate or severe pain after other procedures.

Acetaminophen can be used in dentistry as it has very few side effects.

It has been shown that acetaminophen can interact with warfarin in high doses. This increases the likelihood of blood clotting and increases the chance of bleeding complications after dental surgery (Moore & Hersh 2013, 2013).

NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs).

NSAIDs are widely used to relieve dental pain.

NSAIDs work by inhibiting the formation of cyclooxygenase-2. This enzyme is responsible for producing and synthesis harmful prostaglandins which cause pain, inflammation, fever, and other symptoms.

NSAIDs can also be used to inhibit the synthesis or formation of cyclooxygenase-1, which is responsible for the production of beneficial prostaglandins. This enzyme is involved in maintaining proper blood flow to the kidneys, regulation of platelet activity, and the production of mucous lining.

Dose-related adverse and therapeutic effects of NSAIDs can be detrimental, so it is advisable to use lower doses of NSAIDs in combination therapy.

All NSAIDs can relieve dental pain following dental surgery, according to research.

Ibuprofen, which is a commonly used NSAID, has a high efficacy in relieving pain after dental surgery. It comes in doses of 200mg or 400 mg.

Further studies on NSAIDs have shown that ibuprofen is more effective in relieving pain in patients with moderate to severe pain after dental surgery. There are no side effects (Bryce Bomfim & Bassi 2014).


The discussion has shown that there are several non-opioid medications that can be pharmacologically used to manage dental pain.

Acetaminophen (NSAIDs) are the most effective and common non-opioid medications that have been mentioned.

These agents are often used after dental surgery to reduce inflammation and pain.

These substances can be used in combination to improve their efficacy, minimize side effects and reduce dental pain.

Refer to

Management of dental implant placement: Pre- and post-operative.

Part 1: Post-operative pain management.

Patients with chronic pain who have received non-opioid or opioid treatment for their discomfort.

Clinical drug investigation, 32(1): 53-63.

Combining acetaminophen and ibuprofen for acute pain management following third-molar removals: Translating clinical research into dental practice.

The Journal of the American Dental Association, 14(8), 898-908.

Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 27(5): 513-519.

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