NSM5RFN Research Foundations

Table of Contents


Food environment (e.g.

Food availability, eating context and available resources (e.g.

Food choices are influenced by many factors, including time, money, and skills.

Students start university with a new food environment and new resources.

International students experience these changes more than local students.

These changes can have an impact on how healthy their diets are.

The following questions will be asked of you:

Why don’t Australians eat fish regularly?

It is important to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour in quantitative research designs as your scientific framework.

This means you will need to

Write down the reasons why you think it is important to research the research question

Create a questionnaire that can answer the research question. Tell the reader how your research was conducted.

Report the findings of your investigation.

Use scientific studies to compare and discuss your results


Reasons for low fish consumption in Australia

Researches have done extensive research on the motivations and barriers of seafood consumers. They found that the Australian Territory has a lower seafood consumption than other countries.

It is important to identify the reasons behind the low consumption of fish in Australia. This will allow us to improve the quality of seafood and fish offered by different eateries.

This information will be useful to the Australian government and other health educators in order to effectively run campaigns to encourage seafood and fish consumption.

Most Australians rely on convenience when it comes to food preparation, purchase, and consumption.

Low seafood consumption in Australia could be due to recent socio-cultural changes.

The increase in women working in the kitchen is one reason.

These women are now more willing to eat healthier and spend less time cooking for their families [2].

There has also been a shift in the composition of households, with families splitting into smaller groups. This could explain low seafood and fish consumption.

Partially prepared meals are more popular due to their ease of preparation and simplicity.

People don’t want to spend the effort required to prepare seafood or fish.

Explain to potential barriers that prevent people from buying fish

A lack of fresh fish or inconsistent quality could be a reason people don’t buy seafood.

Some people don’t like seafood.

However, research has shown that people are hesitant to buy fish due to the high price of seafood and fish, the smell of fish when cooking, and the lack of satisfaction compared with meat.

People may also feel that the prices of fish are too high, and so they don’t choose to buy it [4].

There are other factors that can influence the consumption of fish.

The experience and familiarity a person has with a product can influence the purchase decision.

This can even predict the future purchase plans of people.

The process of selecting and cooking seafood can be difficult for consumers.

A variety of food options have resulted in a lower consumption of seafood.

Although pre-packaged seafood is possible, it has not been accepted by all.

Description of Theory Of Planned Behaviour Model and Reasons Why People Buy Or Avoid Fish for Each Part Of The Model

In 1980, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), originally known as the Theory of Reasoned Action, was created to predict the intention of individuals to engage in specific behaviours that are time and place-specific [5].

This theory attempted to explain all human behaviours that they can control.

The model’s key factor is behavioural intention. This refers to the three determinants that determine behavioural intentions. These determinants include the individual’s attitude towards behaviour and behavioural control.

TPB was successfully used to predict and explain a variety of intentions and health behaviors of human beings, including smoking, drinking, substance use, and breastfeeding.

The theory states that behavioural success is dependent upon the ability to control behaviour and motivate the intention.

The theory allows you to distinguish between three types of beliefs: normative, control and behavioural.

The theory includes six constructs [6] that can be used to help people understand and control their behaviour.

The evaluation of a person’s behavioural interest is called attitude.

This includes the evaluation of the outcomes of the behavior.

Subjective Norm

The subjective norm is the belief that most people approve or disapprove of a certain behaviour.

This refers to the beliefs held by the individual about the opinions of his peers and other people of influence about the behaviour he is choosing to engage in.

Behavioural Intention

The motivational factors responsible for inducing a behaviour are called Behavioural Intention.

Higher chances of achieving the desired behaviour are higher if the intention is stronger.

Social norm:

Social norms are customary behavior codes that can be found in a group, individuals, or larger cultural context.

These norms are considered to be standard or normative if they are applied to a group of people.

Perceived behaviour control

This is the person’s perception when deciding the level of the behavior of interest.

Perceived behavioural control can vary from one situation to another, which means that people may have different perceptions of behavioural control depending on the situation.

Perceived power:

Perceived power refers to the perception of the presence of certain factors that facilitate or hinder a specific behaviour.

This is a measure of the person’s perceived control over their behaviour.

According to the expectancy value model, beliefs form the basis of an individual’s attitudes. This model explains how behavioural beliefs can be formed by relating behavioural performance to outcomes.

If one attempts to understand why people buy or avoid fish, it is possible to say that buying fish results in time-consuming cooking, handling smells, and having to choose not to purchase pre-cooked food.

If we look at the buying of fish, it is the behavior that results in people being able to spend less time cooking and have more variety of pre-cooked food.

Research Goal

This research focuses on the reasons that Australia has a low fish consumption.

The reasons people might not buy fish are also explained.

The theory of planned behavior is used to explain why people avoid buying fish.

Also, the research includes interviews with 10 respondents. A questionnaire was prepared based on these results.

Research also addresses the conciseness of the results.

The research also includes a discussion about the facts and self-reflection.


Explaining the interview process

Interviews were conducted with students at the university about Australian food habits.

The researcher conducted a one-on-one interview with each respondent.

Before conducting the interview, the researcher questioned the university management and then planned the interview.

Interviews were conducted face to face with respondents. This allowed for better understanding of their facial expressions.

Describe the recruiting process and the details necessary to reproduce it.

The university granted permission for the researcher to interview students. However, the researcher initially targeted 15 students to inquire about their fish habits.

The random selection was used and the probability sampling was used as the sampling strategy.

The researcher initially approached 15 students. However, only 10 of them agreed that they would answer the interview questions.

The researcher collected the email addresses of the respondents and gave them details about the research process.

Participants agreed to the interview ethics and said that they would confidently give their answers.

The researcher explained the interview process to respondents and then asked them for their answers.

The belief questions are the basis for the first set.

It is my belief that it is true.

It is something I strongly believe in = 3

It is moderately believed to be true = 2

It is possible to believe that it may be slightly less than 1

It’s not true to me.

Australians don’t eat fish often

Because fish is so scarce in Australia, Australians don’t eat it.

Australians prefer to eat fish in restaurants than at home.

Younger generations prefer eating outside to millennials.

Healthy eating fish is possible

Australians don’t eat any local fish, and they prefer imported fish.

Safe to eat fish

The menu with fish in it is delicious.

Because of the difficulty in getting fish at the local market, Australians don’t like it.

To make nutritious food, my family members purchase fish.

I purchase fish to make a variety of meals for my family

Australians are more mindful of their food budget

There are many options

We are completely in agreement


Do not agree

We are completely in agreement

Do you think Atlantic Salmon is the favourite food of Australians?

Do you agree with the fact that fishermen have difficulty generating interest in fish from consumers?

Do you think the young Australian generation prefers seafood to fish?

Do you agree with the fact that Australia has a huge range of fish?

Are you adamant that fish in Australia is more expensive than in other countries?

Are you adamant that Australians are known for cooking lesser-known fish dishes?

Do you think that Australians eat more imported food than that from other countries?

Do you agree that Australians prefer frozen fish to fresh fish?

Do you think that Australians enjoy fish but fisheries don’t care to catch it?

Are you averse to the idea that Australians have superstitions about eating fish?

Are you adamant about the idea of ill health in relation to Australians who eat fish?

Do you think seafood processing in Australia is a well-known industry?


As you can see in the interview responses, Australians prefer to eat fish products over fresh fish at home.

Australians love to eat Tuna and Salmon that has been prepared with spices.

The respondents’ socio-economic status can influence their food choices.

The variables most important are age, gender, education, and preference.

Respondents gave the following answers during interviews:

When asking about the fishermen’s involvement in providing stimuli to respondents:

There are many options

Number of respondents

Response percentage (%)

We are completely in agreement


Do not agree

We are strongly opposed to this.

The younger generation of Australians prefer seafood to fish.

There are many options

Number of respondents

Response percentage

We are completely in agreement


Do not agree

We are strongly opposed to this.

The most important factor in the eating habits of young Australians is their diet.

While fisherman catch fish, Australians purchase fish from foreign sources.

The Australian fisherman also processes seafood and exports it to other countries.

As with other Asian countries, Australians like to fish with a variety of items.

Other than this, Australians prefer seafood to fish.


As you can see in the interview responses, Australians prefer to eat fish products over fresh fish at home.

Australians love to eat Tuna and Salmon with spices.

The most important factor in the eating habits of young Australians is their diet.

While fisherman catch fish, Australians purchase fish from foreign sources.

The Australian fisherman also processes seafood and exports it to other countries.

As with other Asian countries, Australians like to fish with a variety of items [8].

Besides this, Australians prefer seafood to fish.

Different factors have influenced sustenance choices of shoppers. To help us recognize a few, we might mention past encounters or well-being concerns associated with fish utilisation.

It is possible that individuals with a greater fish-eating goal may have more decisive encounters than those who do not. This could lead to utilisation recurrence.

We should mention, among other elements, which features, the parts of value/freshness and taste, as well as solid decisions and family inclinations. While considering the impact of taste, accommodation, and financial requirements on nourishment decision making,

The identification of essential elements for fish customers should be done in such a way that it considers the connections between fish-eating buy behavior and demeanours about clarifying the purpose and recurrence.

To clarify buyer behavior towards fish, a wide variety of models have been suggested. They consider unique, often interrelated variables.

The Theory of Planned Behaviour is an outstanding model that examines the fluctuations in conduct.

It is vital to understand the key variables that drive water-front Peruvian fish customer practice, such as goal and utilisation repeatability [9].

This examination will focus on the conduct of purchasers in Australia using the TPB (Theory of Planned Behaviour).

TPB assesses conduct as a combination of three constructs: attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control.

A few related examinations selected the TPB as the hypothetical structure. This hypothesis is, for example, widely connected to buyer practices.

The well-being of nations with high fish consumption, as well as sustenance decisions and changes in their fish consumption behavior are all connected.

The hypothetical model was approved by an investigation in the light of the TPB connection in Brazil, which is a developing nation.

According to the latest investigations into nutrition related issues, item composition is one of the main factors in customer discernments.

Shoppers’ enthusiasm for healthy eating was found to strongly impact fish consumption behavior. This confirms previous examinations which showed that the relationship between shoppers’ convictions that fish consumption is safe and fish utilisation recurrence was less than expected of European buyers.

The argument that there was a connection between convictions of fish being solid and higher levels of fish utilisation was in large part unsupported.

The conclusion was that fish’s soundness is not a sign of a person’s desire to eat it. This suggests that in Modern Metropolitan Australia fish consumers aren’t concerned about fish solid characteristics [11].

It was also confirmed that there is no significant connection between well-being and fish utilisation. This result can be explained by the fact that while all buyers agree that fish is solid.

Some people are convinced to eat chicken or other healthy foods as an alternative to fish.

Research has shown that individual attributes and the hypothesis of arranged behavior (TPB), as well as determinants, have a significant impact on fish utilisation goal.

Fish utilisation decisions are positively affected by ideal demeanour, high subjective standards and high saw behavioural controls [12].

Propensity is a distinct regressive of behavioural goal and conduct that has critical impacts.

The most important driver of eating fish is the value for its quality. However, it’s not as significant as well-being.

Single determinants include sexual orientation, gender, age, children, wage, education level, and location.

The frequency of fish utilisation is lower in women who are more consistent with their well-being recommendations. However, it increases with age and the proximity to children in the family unit leads to lower fish utilisation [13].

The lowest fish utilisation recurrence is found in the lowest wage class.

Higher education can lead to higher expectations about eating angle, but it has no effect on utilisation recurrence.

The most notable utilisation is in West Flanders’ beachfront locale.

While nourishment association is strongly connected with angle utilization goal, recurrence, and no notable effect on sustenance mindfulness, it does have a significant impact on the quality of food.

To encourage the habit of eating fish in Australia, high-quality food must be produced that is suitable to the needs of the consumers.


The consumption of food by Australian citizens is affected by socioeconomic factors.

The study was limited by the inability to compare the data from the respondents.

The research topic is behaviour and choices of Australian citizens.

This study focuses on the importance of behavioural and health factors.

The questions were difficult to frame. It was crucial that the questions correspond with participants’ planned behavior.

Finding the right people to answer the questions was difficult. TBS helped me find out their fish consumption frequency.

Refer to

[1] Grieger J, Miller M, Cobiac LL. Knowledge and barriers related to fish consumption among older Australians.

2012 Oct 31;59(2),456-63.

[2] Zheng J. Huang T. Yu Y. Hu X. Yang B. Li D. Fish intake and CHD mortality: a meta-analysis of 17 cohort studies.

Public health nutrition.

[3] Birch D., Lawley M., Hamblin D. Barriers to Australian seafood consumption.

Journal of Consumer Marketing.

2012 January 20th, 29(1):64-73.

[4] Parker RW. Hartmann K. Green BS. Gardner C. Watson RA.

The economic and environmental dimensions of fuel consumption in Australian fisheries.

Journal of Cleaner Production.

2015 January 15th, 87:78-86.

[5] Montano D.E., Kasprzyk DJ. Theory of reasoned behavior, theory of planned behaviour and integrated behavioural model.

Health behaviour: Theory and research (.

2015. Jul 1.

[6] Ifinedo, P. Understanding information system security policy compliance: An integration between the theory of planned behavior and the protection motivation theory.

Computers & Security.

2012 February 29;31(1),83-95.

Changes in Australian Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption: 1995-2011.

[8] Higuchi A., DAVALOS. J, HERNANI MERINO. Theory of planned behavior applied to fish consumption in the modern Metropolitan Lima.

Food Science and Technology (Campinas).

[9] Smith KJ. Sanderson K. McNaughton SA. Gall SL. Dwyer T. Venn AJ.

Longitudinal associations of fish consumption and depression among young adults.

American journal of epidemiology.

2014 April 15th;179(10).1228-35.

[10] Ke L. Ho J. Feng J. Mpofu EB, Dibley MJ. Feng X. Van F. Feng X. Feng X. Feng X. Feng X. Van F. Leong S. Lau W. Lueng P. Kowk C. Hypertension is associated with modifiable risk factors such as sunlight exposure and fish intake in a large Macau population.

The Journal of steroid biology and molecular biochemistry.

2014 Oct 31;144(2):152-5.

Flood VM. [11] Flood LM. Wen LM. Hardy LL. Rissel C. Simpson JM. Baur LA.

Validity and reliability of a brief FFQ to assess the dietary habits for 2-5 year-old children in Sydney, Australia.

Public health nutrition.

[12] Vidgen H.A., Gallegos D. Food literacy and its components.

2014 May 1, 76:50-9

[13] Al-Swidi A. Mohammed Rafiul Huque S. Haroon Hafeez. M. Noor Mohd Sharif M. Subjective norms in theory and practice of planned behavior in organic food consumption.

British Food Journal.

2014 Sep 30th;116(10).1561-80.

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