What factors changed the primary role for HRM from being a caretaker of records into a strategic partner.
Discuss the history of HRM, HRIS and how it has changed over time. Also discuss the impact of computer technology on HRM.
What are the requirements for a company to have a competitive edge in the market by managing its human resources effectively?
Discuss the rise of strategic human resource management (StrategicHRM) and its impact on computer technology.
What are some HRM approaches that can be used to support the use of Strategic Human Resources Management (HRM) in a company’s business strategy?
What technology can help you deliver traditional, transformational and transactional HR activities more efficiently?
Simply state the need for an HRS.
Describe the main types of information systems and how to distinguish them.
Use the organizational model in this chapter to explain how the importance and nature of the HRIS function is affected by national culture and organizational culture.
1.Factors which changed the primary role for HRM to a strategic partnership According to Friedman (2013) the role of HRM transformed into a strategic partner because of changes in government regulations and economic conditions.
Technology changes play a major role in the way that different organizations operate.
The rapid development of technology has had a profound impact on operations, changing the role and responsibilities of HRM.
The human actions of humans are limited to planning how to use computers to produce results for a specific purpose.
Information used to be kept in files is now stored electronically.
The HRM are now able to influence strategic thinking and assist operations and strategic management in devising innovative ways to capitalize on technology to improve organizations’ competitiveness.
2.Historical evolution and impact of HRIS on HRM and computer technology Ngai & Wat (2006) assert that HRM is essential for organizations operating in the 21st Century because they are able to boost competitive edge.
Companies must capitalize on the power of information technology to improve HRM efficiency due to the changing business environment.
Faruk, Chowdhury, & Ferdous (2014) state that HRM and HRIS developed in five phases.
These phases are the pre-war era through post-war era.
Pre war ii was characterized by personnel being treated as personnel, personnel administration as an independent function, employee welfare and greater HR record keeping.
The post-war ii era saw more emphasis on employee relations and extensive record keeping. Computers were also used to facilitate the management of employee information.
The legislative era (1960-1980), was marked by personnel becoming HR, organization success being recognized as a result of HRM and the emergence MIS (MIS for Human Resource Management) and HRIS being used for administrative records (Faruk, et al.
In 1980-1990, the low-cost era was witnessed and HRIS’s emergence. During this time, HRIS was used for all HRM functions.
The tech era and the rise of strategic human resources management started in 1990 and are entirely dependent on computers for various HRM functions.
Effective management of the HR Business organizations want to maintain and gain a competitive edge over their competitors.
To rise to the top in a field requires gaining and maintaining an advantage over others.
Cost leadership can give organizations an edge over their competitors by utilizing human resources.
Management should make sure that production costs are reduced and that there is an increase in the number of units produced.
The best technology to manage the human resources is a proven way of leading in cost control (Sameer & Vrinda 2011, pp.
Technology provides efficient work methods and lowers costs.
Organizations should embrace technology to manage human resources. This will give them an advantage.
Strategic HRM and the impact of computer technology on HRM. This will facilitate SHRM use in businesses.
SHRM was developed in the tech era of 1990 and is still widely used today.
Because of technological advances and increased globalization, SHRM was born.
This era saw increased business reengineering, such as the right sizing and outsourcing of employees, reducing organizational structures and reducing management layers (Faruk, et al. 2014, p.76).
Companies today recognize innovative and creative employees for their ability to bring new knowledge, which is essential in creating efficiency and organizational success.
Because they rely entirely on computers to process, analyze, and disseminate information for decision-making, the roles of human resources have changed.
The application of management information systems and incorporation of technology into operations are some of the HRM methods that can be used to enhance organizational strategy.
5.Technology and Human Resources Technology has helped HR professionals deliver high quality services through the integration of systems that store and acquire data for analysis and decision-making.
It facilitates collaboration and communication through tools like e-mail and video conferencing.
The technology standardizes and aromatizes routines, allowing people more time to concentrate on information interpretation than traditional administrative tasks.
The technology has led to the transformation in HR management through the introduction of new processes like e-training and virtual recruitment, portal applications, self-service HR, and knowledge and competency management.
Six Sigma is a method to define, measure, improve, analyze and control business processes. It can be supported by a variety of statistical tools (Nirmala & Rajesha 2014, p.334).
Six Sigma is a standard approach that produces excellent organizational process performance.
It is used in human resources to identify problem areas and eliminate them. Also, safeguards are provided that help prevent reoccurring challenges.
It allows HR professionals to improve and speed up their hiring process. It also increases the accuracy of the database and tracks the success of any particular project within the department.
Six sigma results in improvements in leadership, succession, planning, change management, and communication (Nirmala and Rajesha 2014, p.337).
7.Requirement for HRIS. There are many reasons why HRIS is necessary in different companies. The primary purpose of HRIS is to document employment relations from all aspects of complexity.
HRIS allows managers to legally and ethically access the information they need and supports satisfactory reporting by their employees (Ama Peter & Evans 2015, p.429).
It does not eliminate the need for additional strategic functions that may prove cumbersome.
Employees can also update and address any changes they need without the traditional processes.
Facilitation of data is another reason. This includes the facilitation for employee management, knowledge, career growth, and development, as well as equal treatment (Ama and al., 2015).
These roles are achieved by HRIS through the technology that stores, retrieves and distributes data.
8.Types Information Systems The electronic data processing systems for human resources include Management Information System (MIS), Electronic Data Processing (EDP) and Decision Support Systems(DSS). (Kumar 2012).
EDP allows for the automatic processing of routine information within an organisation, including the storage and processing of files, summarizing reports, and processing transactions.
The MIS facilitates data integration through data retrieval, data categorization, and the creation of a standard report that can be used by all managers and employees.
DSS is useful for making managerial decisions because it allows an interactive user to retrieve information, categorize data, and generates decision alternatives that managers can choose from. It also analyzes utility (Kumar 2012).
DSS also offers a software program that can help you solve uncertainty by using what-if analysis.
9.Influence on HRIS of Corporate and National Cultures Culture can either be a national culture that comes from the outside or an organizational culture that is derived from the inside.
Both cultures have an impact on the functioning of the human resources.
First, the HRIS is affected by many aspects of national culture.
There are regulations that may legalize or make illegal certain aspects of HRIS, which can have an impact on them.
The operation of the human resources must take into account the concerns of society and the labor market.
The corporate culture can also impact the functioning of the human resources through factors that the HR must take into consideration when making decisions (Fischer 2009, pp.
These include the company’s strategic management system, its technology, as well as research.
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