Interventions that increase the use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women: A meta-analysis.

  1. Does this article summarize multiple studies using a systematic approach? What is the type of this study?


Yes, the study is a systematic meta-analysis. The approach is a statistical method that combines data from multiple studies to present the findings. The study used data from various databases to analyze the results of multiple articles. The researchers identified relevant articles from several databases to analyze their findings together and produce their results that supported a hypothesis.

  1. What is the stated purpose of this article?

The study focused on intervention methods that health care providers use in encouraging ethnic minority women in the United States to undertake Pap test screening. The researchers conducted a systematic meta-analysis to establish the general efficacy of interventions to improve the use of Pap tests among the population under study. The study focused on various interventions that have the potential for enhancing compliance with the Pap test.

  1. List the databases that the researchers searched?

The researchers consulted several databases as sources of data for the study. The researchers obtained their studies from “MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, and Science Citation Index-Expanded” (p. 342). The databases provided the identified articles from which the researchers drew the final studies to include in the meta-analysis.

  1. How many researchers were involved in the research? Why?

The study involved seven researchers because it was comprehensive and complex research involving the collection and analysis of data from multiple sources. Therefore, it was imperative to have a strong team of experienced researchers to conduct the meta-analysis. Besides, it was important to bring together different perspectives on the analysis of the data from the identified studies.

  1. What were the keywords used? Were they related to the dependent variable and/or the independent variable?


The keywords used in the study were ethnic minority, meta-analysis, Pap test, and women. They were drawn from the title of the study and relate to the dependent variable, which is the use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women.

  1. How many studies were initially identified? How many studies ultimately were included in the review? Did the researchers provide justification for inclusion/exclusion of studies?


In the beginning, the researcher identified 750 articles. However, in the end, they reviewed only 18 studies. The researchers justified the inclusion/exclusion of studies. The criteria used to exclude some of the studies included the aim of the study, the racial demographics of the subjects, the outcomes of the study, and the design (experimental or quasi-experimental design). All studies that did not meet the identified criteria were excluded from the meta-analysis. Therefore, the researchers excluded a very high percentage of the identified studies to remain with the final 18 articles that were reviewed.

  1. Did the researchers develop quality assessment scores for each study in the dataset? If yes, how many study elements were appraised? How many people scored the studies for quality? Was inter-rater agreement assessed?


The researchers used the “Research and Quality Scoring Method” to determine the quality of the studies in the meta-analysis. They used assessment tools that were already developed, including by “Sackett and Haynes, the Jadad scale, and the items published by Cho and Bero” (p. 343). The overall quality scores in the studies were 0 to 9. The researchers conducted the assessment, but no indication of inter-rater agreement assessment is evident.

  1. What was the overall effect size (see table 3)? What does this mean (interpret the overall effect size)?


The overall effect size in the study was 95% CI. The score meant that the studies had a real effect with a probability of 95%. It also suggests that they provided quality data to inform the findings of the study.

  1. Answer the following questions regarding information in Table 3:
  2. Among the intervention types, which had the largest effect size? Which had the smallest significant effect size?


Among the interventions, the one with the significant effect size was access-enhancing, which had an effect size of 0.253 from six studies. Peer navigator-related was the intervention with the smallest significant effect size, which was 0.106 from 10 studies.

  1. b. In which type of setting were the interventions found to be most effective? In which type of setting were the interventions found to be least effective?


The interventions were highly effective in healthcare settings. The effect size in the setting was 0.212 from 5 articles compared with the community setting where the effect size was least effective. The effect size in the community setting, from 13 articles, stood at 0.138.

  1. For which ethnic group were intervention effects significantly positive?

Asian was the ethnic population in which the intervention effects were significantly positive. The effect size of this group was 0.177 in 8 studies.

  1. What is the conclusion of this article?

The conclusion of the article reveals the most effective interventions to increase the use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women in the United States. The researchers revealed the need for access-enhancing strategies targeting the population in the country. Multiple cultural strategies were shown to be better than single cultural interventions in increasing adherence to Pap tests among the target minority women.

  1. What is your overall assessment of this study?

Regardless of some limitations such as heterogeneity in the quantity and quality of data reported reviewed studies, the study provides significant findings regarding the impact of particular interventions in the use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women in the United States. The study provides evidence of the impact of specific interventions such as those that give the incentive (such as financial) in the willingness of the women to go for the Pap test. The article provides useful information that can inform the practice involving the use of Pap tests for cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States.

  1. Are the findings from this study had potential impact on the nursing practice? Explain.


The findings from the study have the potential to influence nursing practice from the perspective of preventive care. Nurses play a critical role in implementing preventive measures in healthcare, such as screening for cancers and other diseases for timely intervention. The results of the study included their role in increasing the use of Pap tests as screening tools for cervical cancer.

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