GEOS112 The Planet Earth

Table of Contents


Surface Processes and Climate: Evaluating the Connection

Four major lateral transport processes dominate the world: water, mass movement and wind. They move epimorphism products from the source rocks to the ocean.

Some parts of the globe only have one or two of these transport processes, while others have all four. Why is this?

This essay will address the following question:

Climate influences the distribution of lateral transport processes around the globe.

It is necessary to determine where the major transport processes are located, and which zones of climate prevail across the globe. Is there a correlation?

What other factors are controlling the location and speed of transport?



The earth’s surface is constantly changing, leading to new faces and surfaces.

Transport processes are believed to be instrumental in the formation of the earth’s surface.

The process is aided by four major lateral transport processes.

These are water, wind, mass movement, and ice.

These are the transport processes responsible for the earth’s surface.

It’s the movement of products of weathering down or downstream by the help of gravity.

Weathering refers to the removal of earth’s surface from its original attachments or formations.

The weathering products must be separated and, with the help of gravity, will need to move down the slope.

The product will be moved from their original location to another downstream location by gravity. (Lamarche 2016, p.62).

The climate and processes at the core of the earth have been identified as the key factors that control the process.


It involves wind transportation in transport.

It has been shown that the process can shape the earth’s surface.

Winds can transport, erode, and deposit substances in areas that are not their original location.

Winds have been shown to be more efficient on land that is not covered by vegetation.

Because the wind will not be impeded by any of the materials it has carried (Greeley & Iversen 2012 p. 59).

It is susceptible to soil with low moisture and soil that is loose.

In the sense that water is in a position to deposit and sediment substances in an area other than their original location, it can also be seen as aiding in the lateral transportation system.

Water can grab all loose substances from the surface and transport them downstream, or down slopes by gravity (Higgins & Coates 2011, p. 72).

Water can also be used in areas that are completely bare or have soil that is loose and materials that can easily be carried away.

This figure illustrates the water transport process in a river.

Ice is water that has been frozen to a solid form.

It is also believed to aid in lateral transport.

It has been observed that ice is formed at the tops of mountains. As such, in order to move, gravity helps it move down the slope or stream.

It is able to move downstream with the sediments it has accumulated along its path (Krasil?nikov 2013, p.95).

As it melts, it deposits the sediments on the slope.

This can be done even when the weather isn’t favorable, allowing excess ice to flow downstream.

Major Climatic Zones Around The World

The world has three major climatic zones.

This division is based upon the earth’s shape, which includes the polar, temperate, and tropical zones.

Based on the region’s temperature, the climatic zones were created.

Polar climatic zones have low temperatures, sometimes accompanied by snow.

This can be seen at both the South Pole and North Pole.

At the equator, you can see the tropical climatic zones.

This point has a balanced climate, with all the climatic conditions being present.

Moderate climatic areas are thought to be temperate climatic zone (Lamarche 2016 p.62).

The reason is that the area has no extreme climatic conditions.

It is because the area has moderate temperatures in comparison to the tropics.

The climate of the region is between the polar and tropic hemispheres.

This makes it a region with moderate climate conditions.

Predominance of Transport Processes in The Climatic Zones

Because low temperatures are characteristic of the polar climate, there will always be ice and snow.

This will ensure that there will be lateral movement by ice of substances.

The ice will always move downslope. This will mean that substances must be transported down by moving ice.

This is the predominant lateral movement in this climate region.

It is also evident that water is able to carry along substances (Reiners & Driese 2004 p. 91).

Moving ice can also trigger mass movement. This will cause the substance to move down the slope with the help of gravity.

Tropical climate

This climate is able to support almost all movement processes, except ice.

This region is susceptible to wind, water, and mass movement.

Some areas are completely bare, while others have loose surfaces that make it easier to move the wind.

This condition makes the wind more susceptible to substance movement.

It has been also evident that mass movement is also occurring due to the earth’s crust activities and human activities (Singh & et. al., 2011, p. 80).

Water is also a moving process. This is due to the fact that this area is moderately flat, which allows water to transport the materials on the surface.

Temperate climate

The region is characterized by moderate climatic conditions due to its location between the pole and the tropics. (Oliver 2005, p.81).

The region is dominated by wind and water movement processes.

The region is vulnerable to water movement because of its moderately flat terrain and heavy rainfalls.

Floods can be caused by excess water, which flows down slope with the help of gravity (Smellie & Chapman 2002 p.67).

Water will transport substances that are not in their original positions.

Potential Dominance Of Other Processes Influences

Other than the lateral movement processes mentioned above, other processes can also be implicated in significant lateral movement.

Tide and currents

The lateral movement process of tides and currents is also known to move substances.

The oceans and seas are affected by tides.

Tides are caused by a sudden shift in the position of two surfaces on the ocean’s surface.

The tide will rise to the shores of the land and will carry along the substances on the earth’s surface.

The tide is also assisted by gravity, as it will need to return to the shores but with the substances it has carried (Swinbank & et al. 2003 p.98).

It is also important because it can transport substances from one place to another.

Hill slopes and slides

The extra soil saturation on the slope of a hill can aid in lateral transport.

The soil that is saturated with water will lose its grip on the hillside and slide down the slope.

The saturated soil is seen to transport and carry substances as it moves down the slope (White &et.2014, p. 88).

This is also significant because it can also be perceived as transporting substances with the help of gravity.

The process is illustrated in the figure below.


It is evident that lateral transport processes can occur at all positions, as shown in the paper.

They can transport substances from one place to another.

These processes can also be seen as being linked because one process could depend on the other.

Refer to

Wind as a geological phenomenon: on Earth, Mars and Venus.

Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press.

Groundwater geomorphology: The role of subsurface water within earth-surface processes.

Boulder, Colo. : Geological Society of America.

The soils of Mexico.

Submarine mass movements, and their consequences.

Encyclopedia of global climatology.

Transport processes in nature: The propagation of ecological influences by environmental space.

Cambridge, UK New York NY USA: Cambridge University Press.

Encyclopedia of snow, Ice and Glaciers.

The interaction of volcanoes and ice on Mars and Earth.

Data assimilation to the earth system.

An introduction to environmental systems.

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