GEOG3761 Caring As Country

Table of Contents


To gain empathy and compassion for others’ situations, you must ‘walk a mile with someone else’.

We will be doing a role-play about South Australia’s Aboriginal History this week to gain a better understanding of the current situation facing many Aboriginal people.

Engaging with any of the First Nation groups of South Australia will be embedded into this history. It is important that anyone who wants to engage with First Nations be aware of these events as well as how history has affected many people’s current circumstances.

This role play will take you on a chronological tour of these countries since colonization.

Important to remember these words from the workshop’s creators:

‘… is to teach empathy and not make people mad.

People who are educated about this aspect of SA history are more likely than ever to be active and empathetic citizens in the future.

What to do before the Workshop

It is important that all participants have an understanding of Kaurna history, as we will be meeting in Kaurna Country.

Swets Zeitlinger Publishers Exton, PA. : Reclaiming an Australian Language. (read chapter 1, “locating the Study”, pages 1-16).

The Workshop

Your tutor will split you into Aboriginal groups, with one person being left aside to represent European explorers and missionaries, as well as government officials.

Each group will receive a script outlining details about their country.

Your tutor will act as the narrator. He/she will read the main script and solicit comments from the groups. Participants will also be able to share their movements.

After the role play, we will hold a group discussion about your feelings about it.

Then, you will be reunited with your Aboriginal groups to discuss the challenges that your Nation will face in Caring for Country.

This is what you might like to think about:

What are your challenges in caring for a country in your context

Can you live in your country?

Do you have any issues getting access to certain parts of your country?

How do you make your country a source of sustainable income?

Which country is in the best environmental health?

What does this mean for you?

How could you access the resources necessary to support your country?

What are the best ways to access them?

Do you think there would be any issues proving your ongoing connection to your country in order to qualify for Native Title purposes

(Note that NRM policy in South Africa revolves around the determination of native titles).

Final Debrief

What would you say to those who claim that Aboriginal people should just “move on” or “get over” the past?

What are the insights this role offers about whiteness?


Identification of Key Words

Natural Resource Management (NRM).

Aboriginal Land Rights Protection Act


This research is based upon the analysis of the First Nation Interests of Australia regarding the management of the Natural Resources of the nation.

The research will focus on Australia’s tribal rights.

This forest population, who depend on natural resources for their livelihood, was discriminated by colonial interests.

These traditional resources were not available to them, which severely affected their livelihoods.

They finally listened to their long-term protests, and made some friendly laws that reaffirmed their rights over their lands.

They were given different jobs in the management of natural resources and the government hired them as their representatives.

Different programs were created to manage the various strategies and plans that the government had prepared.

It is a common assumption that Fsirst nation’s interests in NRM are limited to ‘Cultural Values or Heritage Management.’ (Hemming et al, In Press).

Use a Case Study on Caring as Country to Support Your Argument.

There is a huge difference between the first Australian and the first nation.

First nation people refer to peoples who are aboriginals, or are from different tribes. However, the First Australians are people who are directly connected to the British colonial founders in Australia.

Protecting aboriginal rights depends on creating biodiversity areas, promoting sustainability, and creating policies for land management (Mitchell, et al.

Australia’s new regulations and rules do not help the cause of the tribe population. They are now prohibited from accessing the natural resources in the protected areas.

This law clearly discriminates against the rights of the wild population, who depend on forest lands for their survival.

Tribal people rely on the forest areas for their livelihood. Any attempt to curtail their rights without consulting them threatens their existence.

Many organizations across the country strongly oppose the legislation.

These organizations, on the other hand, believe in protecting endangered animals and rare plant species from the area (Pertet al.

Leaders of aboriginal tribes try to control traditional lands in order to preserve their culture, develop their community, and be economically independent.

They don’t care about environmental protection (Bohensky and al.

These tribes have had to fight for their land since the British arrived.

Each tribal area has a different perspective on land control.

Some groups believe in the coexistence of the population and environmental concerns, while others believe they are continually being exploited over their land by the authorities.

The current models are attempting to find a solution to the problems.

The government has appointed a variety of management agencies to help understand the tribal culture, history, and political systems.

Management structures should be reviewed on a daily basis to ensure that the laws and regulations governing protected areas are being followed (Bohensky, et al.

The above-mentioned management system can be used to protect a variety of biodiversity areas and protected areas across Australia.

Kakadu, Tasmania National Park and Northern Territory are some examples.

These problems are not the only ones. The problem lies in the power sharing between management and tribal groups, which is necessary to use and preserve natural resources. Pert et. al.

The government should be more cautious when establishing rules and regulations for national parks (Bohensky, et al.

The current situation shows that the interests of the first nation are completely dependent upon cultural heritage and is unwilling to protect the rights of the tribes.

Participation of local and tribal peoples in management of land and water resources is key to the success and sustainability of different government programs.

The different Australian communities have formed a cultural bond that has helped to foster a healthy environment within their respective communities (Stannage 2015).

There are many reasons why the cultural engagement in Australia is so significant.

The country is able to establish a sovereign structure of government that treats everyone equally, regardless of their faith, and gives all citizens the same rights.

Aboriginals are especially treated fairly and participate in many different activities sponsored by the government.

The country has achieved sustainability through cultural collaborations.

These groups are trained to make sustainable use of natural resources by the government.

Cultural growth has allowed the tribes to reach higher education and opened up doors to respected jobs.

The company’s main goal is to make the most of tribal people in order to protect the country’s natural resources.

This collaboration also changes the socio-economic status.

Current policies in the government system have helped to expand the reach of cross-cultural aspects of the country.

Australia’s law system is one of the most successful systems ever implemented by the Australian government.

All citizens are guaranteed sovereign rights regardless of their culture and status (Schmoldt, et al.

The government is broken down into three distinct units: the Parliament, the Executive, and the Judiciary.

Here is the case study of Management of Aboriginal people in Australia.

The country is divided into six areas, which according to the research are:

Reserve natural

Nature parks

Protected area for managed resource

Protected Land Space or Sea Space

Natural Monument


All areas that are accessible to the traditional tribe population have been declared by the government as being of equal importance.

The government has listened to these people and addressed their needs.

In 1970, the commonwealth meeting of Australia adopted the IUCN guidelines that clearly defined the protected areas (Bohensky and al.

National Park refers to an area of land or water that is:

Achieving an ecological balance that is equal or greater than one ecosystem.

The environment should be as quiet and peaceful as possible.

It has the potential to be a place that is rich in research and educational opportunities, as well as a place that is of genuine tourist interest.

A proper management system is essential

You need to have the best security possible to prevent any disruptions or security breaches

A good monitoring system is in place to monitor the park’s conditions on a regular basis.

A technical and support team available for maintenance of the parks

A professional, trained team of guides and assistants to arrange adventure rides for tourists in national parks.

For a long time, there has been a dispute between the Government of Australia and the tribes.

Australia was colonial and has had a long history of suppressing the black aboriginal tribe population by white settlers.

Many laws and regulations that violated the rights of tribal people were passed (Bohensky and al.

The country’s water use was a major problem.

The settlers claimed that tribes could not use the water freely and they would have to pay a huge tax in order to use the water (Langton 2014).

The Government finally agreed to the demands of the tribes and granted them their rights after extensive protests.

Despite major improvements, the future of the country is uncertain.

This is due to climate change.

Many issues have emerged regarding the rights of tribal peoples on the waters of the island continent.

As we mentioned, the tribal people were completely unaware of the various policies relating to the oceans on the continent.

The government fails to recognize the traditional rights and emotions of aboriginal people in relation to water bodies. Therefore, the policies they adopt do not address the needs of this group.

Water resources have been used less for commercial and economic purposes, so the water bodies were neglected

Some areas, especially the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia, have seen a lot of water use.

These systems have used water resources to the limit and it is now only able to be used for a few more years.

The Government has kept out tribal people with a deep knowledge of water resources from development programs. This is another factor that hinders the development of water resources in the country.

Australia has witnessed a significant transformation in its laws regarding water systems over the past twenty years.

Australia has been a major success story in water management, and is now at the forefront in managing water resources around the globe.

The government has taken significant steps to ensure that the aboriginal communities are included in the development and maintenance of the country’s water resources.

These are some of the steps taken

A number of aboriginal groups have been appointed by the government to develop a plan for conserving water resources in the country.

Many aboriginal groups that lived along the coast of the country were granted fishing rights by the government.

These people have been able to make a living and live a disciplined and decent life by being granted fishing rights.

Experts train tribal groups involved in managing water resources. They show them how to ensure that they are used sustainably.

The Murray-Darling case study has shown the difficulties and demands of the nation’s aboriginal population.

The country’s management of water resources in the past has been improved greatly and has been awarded the best water management system in the world (Langton, et al.

2014). The first nation’s land and sea management program is about the efficient management of land and water resources.

In this context, the researcher has used the Moreton-Robinson 2015 case study of Australia.

In 1976, the Australian Government passed the aboriginal land rights act to properly identify and preserve the country’s resources.

The act distinguished some areas that were designated as national parks. These areas were then declared protected areas, where hunting or cutting down trees were illegal (Barber et. al.

Kakudu National Park and Gurig National Park, both located in Australia’s Northern Territory, are two of the most significant examples from this period.

The island continent saw widespread protests by aboriginals, who demanded protection of their traditional rights to the management and ownership of the lands as well as the sea resources (Langton and al.

After many protests and agitations, the government finally agreed to their demands. They also made changes to the original law that supported all of the tribal people’s demands (Altman & Jackson 2014).

Today, the situation is different as aboriginal groups are now primarily engaged in protecting the land and water resources on the island continent.

The program, which began in the Northern Territory, has been extended to all other states on the island continent (Altman & Jackson 2014).

Aboriginals care more about resources than the government. Their policies are better than the government’s because they have a more sustainable plan and can use different resources. (Barber et. al.

The Commonwealth Employment Program in Natural and Cultural Resource Management was the first policy that Australia’s government formulated.

This particular act offered different opportunities for employment to the tribes.

Different employment opportunities were available to tribal people, which was beneficial for their livelihood (Langton and al.

They were granted permission to access the national parks and water bodies, and created a sustainable future for natural resources.

They then started many businesses in these areas, including management consultancies, contract teams, tour operators, forest rangers, and many others.

To ensure the proper functioning of the country’s waters, the aboriginal groups formed coastal teams.

Curtis et. al. emphasized that the government was instrumental in funding this program. They have provided financial resources that support the whole system.

These groups engage in various activities, including managing, maintaining a strict watch and patrolling the areas they control.

These people are engaged to protect the rights of native peoples over traditional lands, their practices, and ensure the protection and preservation of natural resources (Potts et. al.

Tribal people are better informed about the various features of these resources, so the government has hired the right people to do the job.

This program is implemented by the government of Australia using innovative methods and techniques across Australia.

GPS systems can be used to gather information about the country’s natural resources, which could include data on the area’s cultural, natural, and biodiversity.

Cyber tracker systems are used to protect endangered and important species.

Regular monitoring of the area includes the detection of new fauna species and keeping an up-to-date record of all flora species.

The program can be diversified and accelerated by including NGO’s as well as independent private organizations. This will ensure a smooth assessment of natural resources.

To maintain the system and protect the computerized data, the Government has created a cyber security cell.

Radio collars are used to track the movements of different Fauna species, such as the Kangaroo and Koala, and protect them from poachers.

The key element of the program is country-based planning. This ensures that there is an established healthy relationship between government and aboriginal management, or nongovernmental organizations.


The research on the first nation rights for aboriginals in Australia was able to achieve all of its goals.

After the research was completed successfully, the research was done professionally and provided the best results.

Both primary and secondary sources were useful for the research, but secondary research was more important to simplify the work.

An analysis of the entire report points out a new chapter in maintaining the country’s Natural Resources.

Massive protests against the colonial treatment of aboriginal people led to new laws being drafted and created a conducive environment for the management of the country’s natural resources.

Modern governmental policies encourage collaboration among all tribal populations and eliminate discrimination and unemployment.

It can therefore be concluded that the country was able to give all its tribal citizens the same basic human rights as all the other inhabitants of the island continent.

Refer to

Altman, J., and Jackson, S. (2014).

Management of Indigenous land and sea.

Ten commitments revisited: Securing Australia’s Future Environment.

CSIRO Publishing, Canberra. pp.207-213.

Barber, M.; Jackson, S.; Shellberg, J.; Sinnamon V., 2014.

Working Knowledge: Describes collective indigenous, scientific and local knowledge about ecology, hydrology, and geomorphology at Oriners Station on the Cape York Peninsula, Australia.

The Rangeland Journal 36(1), pp. 53-66.

Bohensky E., Butler J., and Davies J.

Perspectives from Australia: Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge with science in natural resource management

Ecology and Society 18(3).

Curtis A., Ross H.. Marshall, G.R. Baldwin, C. Cavaye J., Freeman C. Carr, A. and Syme G.J.

The great experiment in devolved NRM governance: lessons learned from community engagement in Australia, New Zealand and the 1980s.

Australasian Journal for Environmental Management, 21(2) pp.175-175.

Head, B.W. Ross, H., and Bellamy J. (2016).

Management of wicked natural resources: A collaborative challenge at regional levels in Australia.

Landscape and Urban Planning, 54, pp.81-92.

Hill, R. Pert, P.L. Davies, J. Robinson, C.J. Walsh, F. and Falco­Mammone F.

The extent, scope, diversity and success factors of Indigenous Land Management in Australia.

Report to the Australian Landcare Council Secretariat.

Hodgetts J., Chapman D., and Pearson D., July 2016.

The Territory Conservation Agreements Program: Promoting Integrated Conservation Management within Australia’s Northern Territory.

In the 10th International Rangeland Congress (p.

Kimber, R.G.

The challenge to the Aboriginal mosaic fire practices in Lake Eyre Basin.

The Rangeland Journal 37(6), pp.623-630.

Langton M., Palmer L. and Rhea Z.M. (2014)

Protected areas that are community-oriented for local communities and indigenous peoples.

Protected areas, indigenous peoples and national parks: A new paradigm connecting conservation, culture and rights, 84.

Lucas, R. and Fergie D., 2016.

Protecting South Australia’s Aboriginal Heritage: Knowledge, power, and protection.

Right to Protect Sites: Indigenous Heritage Management under the Era of Native Title. p.187.

2015, Natcher, D.C.

Is consensus building better than constructive conflict?

Aboriginal discursive strategies to increase participation in natural resources management in Australia and Canada.

Society & Natural Resources 28(2), pp.197-211.

Maclean, K. Ross, H. Cuthill, M., and Rist P.

Healthy country, healthy people: A case study of an Australian Aboriginal organization’s adaptive governance to improve its socio-ecological system.

Australian Aboriginal Land Management: Opportunities or Constraints.

James Cook, UL Rev. 21, p.25.

Mitchell, A., Shaw P., and Miller D. (2015).

A Roadmap to Independence: K’omoks First Nation Comprehensive Communities Plan and Developer Guidelines.

Mitchell, B., Bellette K., and Richardson S. (2015).

Management of natural resources in South Australia: regional and collaborative approaches.

Water Policy, 17(4) pp.630-648.

The white possessive.

University of Minnesota Press.

Turpin, G.

A spatial database online of Australian Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge to support contemporary natural and cultural resource management.

Science of the Total Environment 534, pp. 110-121.

Pert, P.L. Hill, R. Maclean, K. Dale, A.. Rist, P. Schmider, J. Talbot, L. and Tawake L. (2015)

Mapping cultural ecosystem services for rainforest aboriginal peoples. Integrating biocultural diversity and governance.

Ecosystem Services 13, pp. 41-56.

Potts R., Vella K., Dale A. and Sipe N. (2015)

An analysis of governance arrangements for natural resource management planning and land use in the Cape York Peninsula.

Australian Geographer 46(3), pp.389-409.

Race, D. Mathew S., Campbell M., Hampton K., 2016.

Understanding climate adaptation investments for communities living within desert Australia: the experiences of indigenous communities.

Climatic Change, 13(3-4), pp. 461-475.

Ross, H., Bellamy (J.) and Head, B. (2016)

Australian case studies on collaboration in the management of natural resources: Collaboration challenges

The Challenges of Collaboration in Environment Governance: Barriers & Responses, p.175.

Pesonen M.

Analytic hierarchy process in natural resources and environmental decision-making (Vol.

Springer Science & Business Media.

The people of Perth.

Studies in Western Australian History 29(29), P.95.

An Australian case study on the integration of agriculture and climate change mitigation at landscape level: Implications.

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