GEOG 446 Geography

Table of Contents

Question:

1.Presents data on precipitation and evaporation for a fictional location called Azzoca Town.

These data can be used to do the following:

Calculate the difference in precipitation (PRECIP), and potential evapotranspiration for the listed city.

Each moth’s plus/minus value should be recorded.

Already calculated are January, February, and June.

Completion of the remaining water-balance table.

What months does the city have a constant supply of water?

The months

What months does the city have a net water demand?

The months

What happens during the warm months of June through September?

How much is the year’s total AE?

How much is the annual total deficit?

What is the Surplus total for the year?

Table 3.1: Azzoca town water-balance table.

The values are expressed in mm.

Jan

February

Mar

April

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip

Precip – PE

Storage

Changes in Storage

2.Calculate the water pressure in kilograms/cm2 using the below locations within the oceans.

You can find more information in the “Crunch the Numbers”, page 332 of the textbook.

Puerto Rico Trench is located between the Caribean Ocean (and Atlantic Ocean) at a depth of 8648m

Litke Deep is located in the Eurasian Basin of Arctic Ocean – 5450m depth

Halocline of tropical ocean – depth 1000m

Mesopelagic Zone – Depth of 250 m

Red wavelength penetration depth – 20 m

3.Table 3.2 shows the annual altitude at which the equilibrium line is for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.

Answer the following questions to find out this information:

Calculate the annual retreat or advancement of this equilibrium line.

Positive values signify advancement or retreat of the glacier.

Table the data.

Describe the overall pattern of the glacier’s change.

Be sure to link the changes in equilibrium line with potential changes in accumulation and ablation zones.

What are some global or local factors that could have caused the observed changes in glacier?

Answer:

1.Presents data on precipitation and evaporation for a fictional location called Azzoca Town.

These data can be used to do the following:

Calculate the difference in precipitation (PRECIP), and potential Evapotranspiration for the listed city.

Each moth’s plus/minus value should be recorded.

Already calculated are January, February, and June.

Completion of the remaining water-balance table.

(4 marks)Table 3.0: Azzoca town water-balance table.

All values are given in mm.

Jan

February

Mar

April

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip

Precip – PE

Storage

Storage Changes

What months does the city have a constant supply of water?

The months

January, February and March.

These months are when the potential evapotranspiration is greater than the precipitation.

This period has a high water supply.

What months does the city have a net water demand?

The months

June, July and August. September.

When water demand is greater than supply, net demand is the case.

These are months in which net precipitation is less than the supply.

What happens during the warm months of June through September?

Warmer temperatures result in higher rates of evaporation, which leads to an increase in the amount of water in the air.

Higher levels of moisture in the atmosphere increase the intensity of rainfall (Veblen, Young & Orme, 2015).

The data shows that precipitation between June and September was higher than the previous years.

High temperatures lead to higher rates of potential transpiration.

Warm temperatures have a net negative effect.

How much is the year’s total AE?

Total AE=

How much is the annual total deficit?

Total Deficit for the Year = sum of monthly deficits

What is the Surplus total for the year?

Total surplus for the year = Sum of monthly surplus

2.Calculate the water pressure in kilograms/cm2 using the below locations within the oceans.

You can find more information in the “Crunch the Numbers”, page 332 of the textbook.

Puerto Rico Trench is located between the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Ocean at a depth of 8648m

Two procedures are required to determine the water pressure given the depth of ocean.

The first is to divide the ocean’s depth by 10m. To calculate the number of bars, you need to multiply this number by 1.

Second, pressure in Kg/cm3 can be obtained by multiplying the number of bars by 1.

At 8648m,

Litke Deep is located in the Eurasian Basin of Arctic Ocean – 5450m depth

Bars = 5450/10=545

Pressure of water = 545*1= 545Kg/cm3

Halocline of tropical ocean – depth 1000m

Water pressure = 100 *1= 100Kg/cm3

Mesopelagic Zone – Depth of 250 m

Bars = 250m/10 = 25 Bars

Red wavelength penetration depth – 20 m

Bars = 20m/10= 2

3.Table shows the annual altitude at which the equilibrium line is for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.

Answer the following questions to find out this information:

Calculate the annual retreat and advancement of the equilibrium line.

Positive values signify advancement or retreat of the glacier.

Table the data.

Year

ELA Change

Define the overall pattern of the glacier’s change.

Be sure to link the changes in equilibrium line with potential changes in accumulation and ablation zones.

A glacier is a mass accumulation or snow that has been turned into ice.

It is a solid, crystalline material that moves and advances by moving (Paterson 2016,).

Glacier advancement is possible in situations where there is more ice and snow than is lost.

Glaciers will retreat if the rate at which ice is being lost exceeds the rate at which it is added.

The glacier zone of accumulation refers to the point at which slow additions to glacier cause it to become ice.

Seasonality is indicated by the pattern of glacier change as shown in the diagram.

Changes in temperature and other seasonal factors can lead to advancement or retreat of glaciers.

Higher temperatures lead to melting of ice, snow, which causes retreat of glaciers through a process called ablation (Benn & Evans 2014).

Sublimation, surface meltwater runoff and windblown snow are all examples of agents that can cause ablation.

Low temperatures, however, cause freezing of water vapor, which results in the formation and scattering more glaziers (a phenomenon called advancement).

A negative change in equilibrium occurs when the equilibrium line moves downwards due to more mass being added to the glazier and less mass being lost as a result.

A positive mass balance is when the glazier loses more weight and gains more.

What could be local or global factors responsible for the observed changes in glacier?

Both local and global factors play a role in the movement of glaciers as they advance and recede.

Glaciers can experience changes in their volume and length, which is why they are often either in recession or advancement (Hutter 2017, 2017).

Variation in solar radiation, volcanic activity, and earthquakes are the causes of these movements.

The rate at which glaciers melt and contract is affected by rising temperatures.

The ablation rate increases when temperatures rise. Snow fall and precipitation volume are affected by rising temperatures.

Refer to

Glaciers and glaciation.

Theoretical Glaciology: Material Science of Ice and the Mechanisms of Ice Sheets (Vol.

The physics and behavior of glaciers.

The physical geography and history of South America.

Oxford University Press.

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