CMSE11179 International And Comparative Human Resource Management

Table of Contents


How much does the increase in non-standard work in the UK show that employers are restructuring their workforce in accordance with the flexible firm model?



Cooke and Jiang (2017) identify four main types of non-standard jobs: part-time, temporary, seasonal, and part-time.

Agency work has also seen a rise. This is where companies contract with other firms to supply labor.

Stirpe, Bonache, and Revilla (2014) stated that the act of self-employment is also non-standard and has been growing in popularity worldwide and in the UK.

Larger firms are dominant in the country’s economy.

The public sector is responsible for more temporary work than the private sector, since most of them work on a contract basis and in a casual setting.

Balance between work and life, as well as health issues

Kalleberg (2015) believed that balance is essential for employees to retain their jobs in the industry. This will give the employer an incentive to stay within the company.

Older people are unable to work long hours, so they need flexible hours that allow them to work for a set period.

Brown (2016) said that employees who are less skilled have poor health and must retire early due to their declining years.

Because of their years of experience, skilled workers tend to be retained in the company for longer periods of time.

Employers can retain their older employees to increase the output of the company.


Gallie et al. (2017) state that employers are shifting to a more flexible model because of the decrease in work hours among older workers.

This has allowed the organization to manage the labor force effectively, which has resulted in higher productivity.

Flexibility in Workskpace

Murphy (2014) and Turner (2014) believe that employers are open to accommodating employees’ health needs.

They shift the opportunities to these employees in order to give the job to the most healthy employees.

This allows them to maintain the company’s culture, which leads to increased productivity.

Koch and Fritz (2013) state that employers enjoy the lateral movement among employees, which can be a motivator within the workplace.

This has resulted in employees being able to find better options within the company to complete their work effectively.

Knox (2015) reported that the survey was done in the United Kingdom and showed that employees are moving more towards work that is not standard.

However, the employment that is not of a primary nature was growing at a slower pace.

Employers had to reflect on short-term factors in order to develop strategies.

Different levels of flexibility are required to understand the relationship between non-standard work and work that must be done by a group.

In 2002, a survey showed that flexibility was more commonly used than non-standard employment.

This was due in part to outsourcing, where tasks were performed by employees from another company.

Kersley et al. (2013) stated that there were a variety of factors that led to non-standard employment in the UK. Some of these are the levels of stagnation in the market which is also related to the global recession.

Companies have been unable to compete in the global market due to prolonged periods of recession.

Another factor is the loss in job, which has occurred in many of the UK-based firms.

This has led to a decrease in employment, which will make it difficult for employees to establish a relationship.

Johnstone and Ackers (2015) believed that uncertainty was also high in the UK market. It has grown at an average of three percent per year.

Today’s market has seen a lot of firms become more cautious, and they have been investing less in the employment factor.

Brewster and colleagues.

Brewster et al. (2016) state that technology has also contributed to lower costs of hiring people.

Employers have been able to reduce costs and time by using automation.

Employers have been able to restructure their work hours in an unconventional way because of the reduction in time.

These flexible methods have allowed employers to manage employees in a way that is more in line with the realities of the labor market.

Employers must place a premium on this amount to ensure quick responses from the workforce, which could help them get contracts in a more efficient manner (Drache and LeMesurier 2015).

To ensure that the task is completed in a timely manner, the work force must be able to meet the requirements of the job.

Employers have been able to choose more flexible methods in order to attract employees.

Different types of flexibility

Lucidi (2012) stated that there are three types of flexibility that employers can accept: functional, financial, and numerical.

Functional flexibility allows employees to be deployed quickly between tasks and activities.

It is necessary to deploy skilled workers for jobs that are mechanical and electrical in nature.

This may involve the transfer of workers from a job in direct production to one in indirect production or vice versa.

Stone (2012) also stated that this can lead to a complete change in the employee’s career.

Functional flexibility is the ability to change the product or production. This happens when the labor force changes in a short-term or long-term basis.

First, financial flexibility can be used to adjust the payment method. This can be done by analyzing the external demand and supply.

Rees and Edwards (2016) state that employers will seek to hire employees at a lower cost in order to maximize their profit and output.

The differences between workers and the groups that are pushing to lower the wages is more important than the push from the top management.

Keune (2013) states that this shift increases bargaining power between skilled and unskilled workers.

Second, the longer-term is more important than the short term. This shift will help in providing a shift to the remuneration structure, which will be based either on the numerical or functional type of flexibility.

Numerical flexibility, on the other side, helps to decrease or increase short-term changes in the labor required by organizations.

It is possible to implement policies regarding hiring and firing in an easy way. This may result in better relationships between workers and managers through strengthening the contract.

Chen (2012) stated that flexibility must be properly managed by employers to ensure that resources are used effectively.

Claydon and Thompson (2010) said that employers must examine the different conditions in order to adopt a flexible model that can be used strategically within an organization.

Employers must have a thorough understanding of the changes within the company so they can adopt the flexibility that is most appropriate for their workforce.

Wright (2013) noted that employers can use cross-sectional data to help them adopt flexibility in the workplace and identify any changes that may be necessary for the labor force.

Employers will be able to adapt production processes through various organizational structures by having flexibility in the labor force.

Employers will be able to see the relationship between these links.

Employees who feel more flexible within an organization are more committed to their job and have a higher performance.

Heery and Simms (2011) stated that employers can control the UK’s non-standard employment problem by choosing the best methods to allow their workers to be flexible.

It has a positive effect on workers as they feel relieved and satisfied at work which in turn increases their loyalty to the company.

Valenzuela (2011) stated that many organizations in the UK have adopted one or more of these flexibility forms in order to attract the labour force.

Employers can negotiate a better deal for their employees so they can stay within the company.

Dowling (2008) stated that an organizational change will allow employers to be more flexible and adapt their work methods to the new workforce.

Employers have the option of a restructured employment structure which allows them to be flexible in almost all aspects.

Kalleberg (2001), stated that employers must adopt the new model to help form the hierarchical structure. This will allow it to help in employing different policies to help classify the work force into various groups.

The divisions within an organization are made using the distinctions between white collar and blue collar to allow employees to be divided according their skills.

This will allow the organization to assign the correct duties to employees who are capable of carrying out the task.

Winch (1998) states that this division of skills assists managers in maintaining operations within an organization, so it can diversify the work pressure.

This structure allows for the disintegration of the labor force and increases the flexibility of the workers to speed up the activities within the company.

Flexibility that is functional is more important so that flexibility and shifts from the peripheral can be made in a faster manner.

Tarique, Briscoe, and Schuler (2015) noted that Apple operates in the UK market with an office, which uses the flexibility firm model.

According to them, employees can get tired if they have to do the same job for a prolonged period of time.

Flexibility in shift hours has helped employees maintain a balance between work and life.

Groups in Flexibility Model

Brewster, Mayne, and Tregaskis (1997) believed that workers in the core group are fully-trained, such as the managers, designers, and technicians who support the company on a daily basis.

Their employment security must be secured by their willingness to accept functional flexibility, which should be acceptable in both the short- and long-term.

Hoque and Kirkpatrick (2003, p. 3) stated that terms and conditions for employment must be designed in accordance with the functional flexibility to allow employees to work in a more productive environment.

You can do this by creating a single condition status and then reviewing the payment system to improve the skills related acquisition and deployment.

This will allow you to evaluate employees based upon their performance.

Budhwar, Schuler, and Sparrow (2009) noted that Philips has allowed its employees to return home and work if there is no parking available.

The employees are happy because they don’t have to worry about personal belongings and can concentrate on their work.

Gallie and Felstead (2004) state that the current employer model consists of the first peripheral group. This is the employee who works full-time but has low job security.

This results in a low access to opportunities for their careers.

Externally available labor market tends to be used so that they can fill the positions that allow for financial and numerical flexibility.

Keune (2013) states that these flexibility can be achieved by a direct link between the core group and the labor market available to the company.

As their job opportunities are limited, their scope of work is reduced and there is less labor market turnover.

This will allow you to adjust the numeric value for the possible availability of labor in your product market.

Simms and Heery (2011) stated that both the demand and supply of labor are constantly changing in relation to the UK’s skilled and unskilled labor.

Employers can now identify the different factors that affect the pay and education of employees to ensure they are able to carry out their work efficiently within the company.

Both the employees and employers have been benefited.

Understanding the latest trends that are affecting employers is key to understanding the effects on high- and low-skilled jobs, as well as the transition period for workers.

Employers will benefit from understanding the skills required by employees to successfully complete the change in the labor market.

Brewster Mayne, Tregaskis (1997) state that in order to make the employment design work properly, the workforce must have a combination of numerical flexibility and functional flexibility.

Part-time work is more common for the first peripheral group. This is because the structure of work changes due to changing needs within the organization.

This has allowed for greater flexibility and reduced commitment from the organization in terms of career development and job security.

Noiseux (2015), LeMesurier, and Drache (2015) all agreed that jobs that aren’t directly related to the company and require a high level of expertise increase the chance of employers subcontracting them out to outsiders to ensure that they can do the job properly.

As the firm is able to decide how long it will take to complete the work, this increases the numerical flexibility.

This will encourage functional flexibility in the company due to the increased commitment of special employees to completing the work after it is outsourced.

Public sector agencies that have privatized work have better information. Teleworking and networking of functions in the wider aspects of the UK labor market allows for greater knowledge.


It can thus be stated that non-standard workers do the main work of the organization, and there is no distinction between regular and these employees.

This type of employment makes up nearly half of the UK’s labor market (Kersley and al.

They are in the lowest position on the UK labor market. They are more likely to be discriminated against in terms of their wages and the tasks they are given.

Restructuring the labor market has facilitated the increase in work and provided benefits for the employees’ skills (Cooke & Jiang 2017).

This will increase the employment rate, which can lead to stable economic growth and better earnings for employees.

Flexibility will be a key factor in determining how committed and stable the labor market is.

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