Pathogenic Avian Flu
Avian flu originated in 1878 when it was identified in birds. During the period, the disease was referred to as the fowl plague, which led to high mortality in birds. The H5N1 virus is the pathogenic avian flu (HPAI), which has its host in poultry (Bi et al., 2015). The virus continues to spread and cause a danger to animals and humans. The pandemic flu virus resulted from avian flu viruses, HPAI H5N1 virus, which is argued to be the most severe pandemic type of the disease. While birds are the primary hosts, the virus has found other ways of transmission from birds to humans.
Although avian flu originated in birds, its effect is not limited to birds as it can be exhibited on other hosts through the transmission. It is worth noting that viruses adapted to birds are the primary causes of the disease. Therefore, pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is the type of flu with the highest risk, although other strains have developed with time. The virus was transmitted zoonotically from birds to birds, but later developed in new strains that could be transmitted from birds to animals and then from human to human. The transfer of the virus from birds to humans caused fatal consequences because many people were susceptible to the virus (Lai et al., 2016). The virus replicates proficiently in dead humans with potential challenges relating to human-to-human transmission. However, current research remains insufficient regarding the interspecies transmission of flu viruses, including avian flu.
Potentially, the new H5N9 will be the next pandemic in the world, although specific evidence is still lacking. However, H5N9 viruses are posing a considerable threat to human health, such as in China, where the virus has caused severe human respiratory infections, with a significant impact on social and economic wellbeing. Just like other avian flu viruses, the virus is potentially transmitted from birds to humans. Some analyses have been conducted to understand H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. The findings of a study by Yu et al. (2015) revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). However, the actual trend in the pandemic and prevalence remains inadequately explored. Therefore, researchers and medical experts should investigate the possible impact of HPAI H5N9 virus on animals and humans.
Avian flu has a long history affecting animals and humans. Influenza A virus naturally occurs in birds and is the leading cause of bird flu. The virus traces its origin to birds as hosts of one of the leading pandemics in the world in the recent past. Even though the virus originated in birds, it evolved to affect humans, creating severe cases of flu. The virus is similar to different kinds of flu that are adapted to a particular host, such as swine flu and human flu. Previous research indicates the existence of various types, H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9, with some being more deadly than other types. Recent trends reveal the potential of H7N9 as a fatal type of avian flu affecting people. However, more research is necessary to provide more evidence of the pandemic related to the virus. Even though various aspects of bird flu are critical in understanding the avian flu, it is necessary to focus on the origin and the different types of avian viruses that cause pandemic.