Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Antibiotic resistance creates a severe problem in public health. Although some bacteria can cause serious diseases, most of them are resistant to the commonly available antibiotics. The following bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics. “Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) gut bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB).” [2]

Class of Antibiotics to which the Bacteria is Resistant

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is resistant to doxycycline, rifampin, and chloramphenicol. These antibiotics belong to the class of tetracycline. The class is categorized due to its protein synthesis indicator that inhibits the mechanism of action on the bacterial infection [1]. The bacteria have a genome placidity that allows them to utilize plasmids, insertion sequence efficiently, and transposon to attain and transfer-resistant elements. Thus, tetracycline is a class of medication that helps treat and manage different bacterial infections.

Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE) gut bacteria is resistant to carbapenem. The antibiotic is a combination of polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and ceftazidime. The antibiotics belong to the class beta-lactam antibiotic, exhibiting activity against anaerobic and aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The antibiotics have a broad antimicrobial spectrum that acts against several aerobic and anaerobic pathogens [2]. However, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has been resistant to this antibiotic.

Vancomycin or daptomycin are the antibiotics for treating invasive infections due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibiotics belong to the class of Penicillinase-resistant penicillins because they inhibit the synthesis of cell walls and disrupt the permeability of cell membrane [3]. Regardless of the potency of antibiotics, MRSA is mainly resistant.

Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is resistant to a combination of later-generation fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin. The antibiotics belong to the class of fluoroquinolones because of their broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against atypical organisms and anaerobes [4]. The antibiotics regimen is on a six-month plan where the doctor prescribes these antibiotics for twenty-eight weeks.

Mechanism of Resistance

The resistance of Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis emerges through different mechanisms. The bacteria are resistant to antibiotics because of the ability to limit the number of compounds available in the antibiotics. The intrinsic resistance occurs due to the mechanisms that produce thick and waxy hydrophobic cells to degrade the drug and modify enzymes [5]. Therefore, people who contract Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and get infections tend to resist medication, including isoniazid and rifampin, the most potent drugs for treating tuberculosis. Due to this resistance, medical practitioners insist on combining first-line anti-tuberculosis agents that form the core treatment regimen.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to these antibiotics because of their differentiating attributes to healthcare-associated infections. In cases of high MRSA, the bacteria isolate the elements of antibiotics rendering it infective. Thus, there have been several companies that have manufactured different antibiotics with differing components [4].

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) resists antibiotics because of their ability to trigger enzyme production in the host. For this reason, the structural mutation triggers the pathogens to produce carbapenemases that hydrolyze carbapenem. Thus, the efflux pump and porin mutation form the primary mechanism of resistance [3].


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