Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Tobacco


Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading type of lung cancer in the United States.  Top of FormIt is a type ofBottom of Form

non-small cell cancer and different from small cell lung cancer. The current study hypothesizes that just like other types of lung cancer, smoking is the leading risk factor of Adenocarcinoma of the lung. Therefore, smoking avoidance and cessation are the most effective steps in preventing Adenocarcinoma of the lung. As the most common type of lung cancer, Adenocarcinoma of the lung comprises 40% of all cases in the United States. Some of the common symptoms of the disease are coughing and shortness of breath, coughing up blood, chest pain, weight loss, hoarseness, headache, and bone pain. Lung cancer is the primary cause of deaths from cancer in the U.S. The numbers of Adenocarcinoma cases, and other types of lung cancer and related deaths have increased over the past few years to 148,945 deaths in 2016 from 159,292 in 2005. Approximately 541,000 people in the country have a lung cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, the numbers might continue to intensify in the future, increasing the complexity of the healthcare system in cancer treatment. Tobacco smoking is the leading risk factor of Adenocarcinoma of the lung. About 80% to 90% deaths from lung cancer in the country result from tobacco smoking. Tobacco has dangerous chemicals that cause the danger of developing various types of lung cancer. Different treatment options are available for Adenocarcinoma of the lung. During the initial stages, a patient can undergo surgery for tumor removal. Adjuvant therapy is useful after a resection surgery to prevent relapse of the tumor. Chemotherapy can improve the chances of survival during advanced stages of cancer. Radiotherapy might also help to damage the cancerous cells. Respiratory therapy might assist patients in palliative care to support their quality of life.


Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Tobacco Top of Form


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Adenocarcinoma of the lung is characterized by different molecular and cellular features from other types of cancer. The condition is one of the most common varieties of non-small cell cancers of the lung. It is different from small cell lung cancers from the perspective of the behavior of the affected cells and the prognosis. The current research hypothesis is that, just like other types of lung cancer, smoking is the leading risk factor of Adenocarcinoma of the lung. Although people should understand other risk factors associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung, smoking cessation is the most effective step towards reducing the prevalence of the disease.

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a form of lung cancer, a non-small cell type. It comprises 40% of all cases of lung cancer in the U.S. The condition is also classified into several other variants and sub-types depending on their features and prognosis. However, they have similar symptoms with different types of lung cancer. People suffering from the condition usually complain of persistent coughing and shortness of breath. Other symptoms include coughing up blood, chest pain, weight loss, hoarseness, headache, and bone pain (Travis, Brambilla, & Riely, 2013). However, the symptoms might fail to exhibit at the beginning because most cancer symptoms become evident during advanced stages.


Lung cancer is among the leading cause of deaths from cancer in both women and men in the United States. In 2018, approximately 154,050 Americans died from the various types of lung cancer, including Adenocarcinoma of the Lung. Deaths from the disease increased to 148,945 in 2016 from 159,292 in 2005. About 541,000 people in the country have a lung cancer diagnosis. Estimates made in 2016 revealed that 234,030 new cases would be evident in 2018. A significant number of individuals living with the disease have received a recent diagnosis, mostly within the past five years. The majority of people living with cancer in the country (86%) in 2015 were 60 years or older. Notably, more men than women are diagnosed with cancer in the country (American Lung Association, 2019). However, more women than men are living with the disease.

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Tobacco Top of Form

Tobacco smoking is considered as one of the main risk factors of lung cancer. In the United States, smoking is associated with approximately 80% to 90% of deaths from lung cancer. The use of different types of tobacco products, such as pipes and cigars also increases the risk of Adenocarcinoma of the lung. Tobacco is a dangerous and potentially poisonous product, with a blend of more than 7,000 chemicals. At least 70 of the chemicals are carcinogens. Smokers are 15 to 30 times at a higher risk of suffering from any lung cancer compared to non-smokers (CDC, 2019). Even occasional smoking or smoking a few cigarettes every day creates a considerable risk of lung cancer. The risk increases with the number of years one has been smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily.

Current Treatments

Various treatment options are available targeting Adenocarcinoma of the lung. Patients with stage I, II, and IIIA cancer can undergo surgery to remove the tumor. However, the doctor should ensure that the patient can endure the surgery and that the tumor is resectable. Individuals who have gone through a resection surgery can use adjuvant therapy to prevent the danger of recurrence of the tumor. Chemotherapy is used to enhance survival and lower adverse events associated with cancer, especially among those in stage IV. Oncologists might also recommend radiotherapy to damage cancer’s DNA (Zappa & Mousa, 2016). Doctors may recommend the most favorable treatment depending on the nature of the tumor, the stage, and the strength of the patient.

The Relationship with Respiratory Therapy

The patient might also undergo respiratory therapy, especially in the most advanced cases. The option is mostly advised for patients in palliative care to promote aspects, such as breathing and quality of life. Patients can also use immunotherapy as a natural defense mechanism to fight cancer cells (Zappa & Mousa, 2016). The process targets cancer cells in order to slow or halt their growth. The procedure helps a patient to have a better quality of life regardless of cancer.

Any Advances for the Future

Various future advances are tested each day to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment. For example, oncologists and other medical experts are trying innovative strategies to ensure that tumor cells attack themselves to help in slowing or stopping their growth. Some approaches aim at targeting checkpoint pathways, the “inhibitory receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1” (Zappa & Mousa, 2016, p. 289). Such treatments are useful to support the self-tolerance of the immune system. Another potential advancement in the procedure is “Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA-4) therapies,” which might help in down-regulating the activation of T-Cell (Zappa & Mousa, 2016). Success in this area might prove useful in reducing high cases of cancer and achieving successful treatment.

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